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    ASAHIKLIN AK-225AES


     


    INTRODUCTION


    ASAHIKLIN AK-225AES was developed as a defluxing agent. AK-225AES is an azeotrope-like mixture of AK-225, ethanol and stabilizer and is suitable for use in a vapor degreaser. It effectively removes flux residues as well as ionic soils from printed circuit boards and other electronic devices.  AK-225AES is 95% VOC free as of the October 8, 1996 Federal Register.


     


    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES


    Physical properties of AK-225AES are shown in Table 1.





    Table 1  Physical Properties of AK-225AES.




     




     

    AK-225AES

    CFC-113AES(1)

    Boiling Point ( C)

    52

    46.5

    Freezing Point ( C)

    -138

    -41.8

    Density (g/cm3)

    1.49

    1.50

    Viscosity (cP, 25 C)

    0.61

    0.66

    Surface Tension (dyne/cm, 25 C)

    16.8

    18.5(2)

    Vapor Pressure (mmHg, 25 C)

    291

    360

    Latent Heat of Vaporization (cal/g, b.p.)

    40.6

    42.9

    Relative Evaporation Rate (Ether=100)

    81

    120

    Specific Heat (cal/g   C)

    0.27

    0.272(2)

    Solubility of Water (wt%, 25 C)

    0.33

    0.25

    Solubility in Water (wt%, 25 C)

    0.053

     

    Flash Point ( C)

    None

    None

    KB Value

    41

    39




    (1) CFC-113AES is a mixture of CFC-113, alcohol and stabilizer.     (2) At 20 C.




     




     




    CLEANING PROCEDURES




    It is recommended that AK-225AES be used in a vapor degreaser for maximum cleaning efficiency,




    economy and emission control. Cleaning procedures for AK-225AES are quite similar to those of CFC-




    113AES (a mixture of CFC-113, ethanol and stabilizer). The procedures consist of immersing a workload into the boiling solvent, rinsing or spraying with cool solvent and drying in solvent vapor.




     




     




    MATERIAL COMPATIBILITY




    AK-225AES is compatible with many common materials under typical cleaning conditions. However,




    certain plastics and elastomers are affected by AK-225AES. It is recommended that material compatibility be tested prior to use.




     




    Tables 2 and 3 show the effect of AK-225AES on unstressed plastics under typical cleaning conditions (at the boiling point for five minutes) and also under extreme conditions (3 days at the boiling point). AK-




    225AES is compatible with most plastics except polymethyl methacrylate. Some plastics such as polycarbonate, ABS resins and polyphenylene oxide, however, will crack or craze if they are stressed.




     




    Table 2  Effect of AK-225AES on Unstressed Plastics for 5 minutes at the Boiling Point.


     

    AK-225AES

    CFC-113AES

     

    Weight

    Change (%)

    Linear Swell

    (%)

    Extractables

    (%)

    Weight

    Change (%)

    Linear Swell

    (%)

    Extractables

    (%)

    Polyvinyl chloride (rigid)

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    Polyvinyl chloride (plasticized)

    2.1

    0.4

    0.7

    <0.1

    <0.1

    0.3

    Polyethylene (HP)

    0.1

    0.2

    <0.1

    0.2

    <0.1

    <0.1

    Polyethylene (LP)

    0.4

    0.5

    0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    0.1

    Polypropylene

    0.1

    0.5

    0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    Polystyrene

    0.8

    0.3

    <0.1

    0.5

    <0.1

    0.1

    Polymethyl methacrylate (Acrylic)

    crack

    crack

    crack

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    Polycarbonate

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    Polyacetal

    <0.1

    <0.1

    0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    Polyphenylene oxide

    0.1

    0.2

    0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    Phenolic

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    ABS

    1.1

    0.1

    0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    Nylon 6

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    Nylon 66

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    Polyester (FR)

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    PTFE

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    PCTRE

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    Epoxy (FR)

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    Polyphenylene sulfide

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    Polybutylene terephthalate

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1


     


     


    Table 3  Effect of AK-225 AES on Unstressed Plastics for 3 Days at the Boiling Point.


     

    AK-225 AES

    CFC-113 AES

     

    Weight

    Change (%)

    Linear Swell

    (%)

    Extractables

    (%)

    Weight

    Change (%)

    Linear Swell

    (%)

    Extractables

    (%)

    Polyvinyl chloride (rigid)

    <0.1

    <0.1

    0.2

    <0.1

    <0.1

    0.2

    Polyvinyl chloride (plasticized)

    Stiffen

    &

    Deform

    19.9

    2.2

    49.3

    Polyethylene (HP)

    3.2

    0.7

    <0.1

    8.3

    1.2

    0.3

    Polyethylene (LP)

    8.0

    1.5

    0.1

    7.2

    1.1

    0.3

    Polypropylene

    10.0

    1.9

    0.2

    17.4

    2.9

    0.4

    Polystyrene

    28.6

    0.8

    0.9

    42.5

    3.0

    2.8

    Polymethyl methacrylate (Acrylic)

    Dissolve

    Dissolve

    Dissolve

    30.2

    1.5

    0.3

    Polycarbonate

    7.7

    0.4

    <0.1

    0.6

    0.5

    0.3

    Polyacetal

    1.2

    0.3

    0.2

    1.0

    0.2

    0.2

    Polyphenylene oxide

    13.8

    0.6

    1.9

    30.8

    0.8

    1.0

    Phenolic

    -0.6

    <0.1

    <0.1

    -0.2

    <0.1

    0.5

    ABS

    73.4

    1.4

    0.7

    1.2

    0.2

    1.2

    Nylon 6

    0.1

    0.2

    <0.1

    -0.3

    0.2

    0.3

    Nylon 66

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    0.6

    0.1

    0.5

    Polyester (FR)

    3.0

    <0.1

    0.2

    1.0

    0.1

    0.1

    PTFE

    2.2

    0.5

    0.2

    1.0

    0.1

    0.1

    PCTRE

    2.8

    0.4

    <0.1

    1.6

    0.2

    0.2

    Epoxy (FR)

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    0.2

    <0.1

    0.1

    Polyphenylene sulfide

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    <0.1

    Polybutylene terephthalate

    0.4

    0.2

    <0.1

    0.5

    <0.1

    <0.1



    Tables 4 and 5 show the effect of AK-225 AES on elastomers under normal cleaning conditions (5 minutes at the boiling point) and also under extreme conditions (3 days at the boiling point). AK-225 AES affects some elastomers differently than CFC-113. Gaskets and/or seals used in cleaning equipment should be made of polytetrafluoroethylene, EPDM or chloroprene. Mechanical pump seals in solvent re-circulation pumps should be polytetrafluoroethylene. Seal-less pumps are ideal.


     


     


    Table 4.  Effect of AK-225 AES on Elastomers for 5 Minutes at the Boiling Point.



     

    AK-225 AES

    CFC-113 AES

     

    Weight

    Change (%)

    Linear Swell

    (%)

    Extractables

    (%)

    Weight

    Change (%)

    Linear Swell

    (%)

    Extractables

    (%)

    Polysulfide rubber FA (T)

    5.5

    2.4

    1.4

    1.1

    0.9

    0.8

    Natural rubber (NR)

    2.9

    0.9

    0.8

    3.6

    0.6

    2.6

    Urethane rubber (U)

    10.9

    1.6

    0.3

    1.6

    0.9

    0.4

    Isobutylene isoprene rubber (IIR)

    2.0

    0.5

    1.7

    5.7

    0.3

    3.1

    Polychloroprene (CR)

    2.1

    0.3

    0.8

    1.6

    <0.1

    0.7

    Fluoroelastomer E (FKM)

    5.4

    1.6

    0.2

    1.0

    0.4

    0.3

    Chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM)

    1.4

    0.4

    1.8

    1.1

    0.3

    1.5

    Silicone rubber (Q)

    32.9

    9.8

    0.5

    25.4

    6.1

    0.5

    Nitryl Rubber (NBR)

    11.5

    2.9

    1.6

    1.8

    1.0

    1.5

    Ethylene propylene diene terpolymer

    (EPDM)

    2.3

    -0.1

    1.5

    4.1

    0.7

    3.7


     


     


     


     


    Table 5. Effect of AK-225 AES on Elastomers for 3 Days at the Boiling Point.



     

    AK-225AES

    CFC-113AES*

     

    Weight

    Change (%)

    Linear Swell

    (%)

    Extractables

    (%)

    Weight

    Change (%)

    Linear Swell

    (%)

    Extractables

    (%)

    Polysulfide rubber FA (T)

    114.8

    24.5

    10.4

    19.8

    2.3

    17.0

    Natural rubber (NR)

    26.4

    7.2

    4.9

    30.1

    7.3

    23.1

    Urethane rubber (U)

    170.2

    32.3

    0.2

    32.2

    7.3

    3.3

    Isobutylene isoprene rubber (IIR)

    6.6

    -0.4

    14.1

    40.1

    5.8

    30.5

    Polychloroprene (CR)

    26.6

    4.1

    7.7

    18.9

    5.4

    15.2

    Fluoroelastomer E (FKM)

    65.6

    20.6

    1.9

    32.0

    12.0

    1.8

    Chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM)

    1.4

    -2.0

    17.3

    8.4

    1.4

    24.1

    Silicone rubber (Q)

    201.0

    31.2

    2.0

    111.0

    40.5

    5.9

    Nitryl Rubber (NBR)

    160.9

    31.9

    13.4

    20.5

    3.5

    22.1

    Ethylene propylene diene terpolymer

    (EPDM)

    8.2

    0.4

    14.0

    41.3

    4.8

    33.2


    *CFC-113AES is a mixture of CFC-113, ethanol and stabilizer.


     


    AK-225 AES is compatible with common metals. Table 6. Shows the effect of AK-225 AES on common metals after 7 days exposure at the boiling point.






    Table 6. Effect of AK-225 AES on Metals after 7 Days at Boiling Point.




     

    AK-225 AES

    CFC-113 AES*

     

    Wt Change

    (mg/dm2   day)

    Cl

    (ppm)

    Corrosion

    Wt Change

    (mg/dm2   day)

    Cl

    (ppm)

    Corrosion

    Steel (SPCC-SB)

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    Stainless Steel (SS-304)

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    Magnesium

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    Aluminum

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    Zinc

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    Silver

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    Copper

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    Nickel Silver

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    Phosphorous bronze

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    Brass

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    Tin

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    Solder

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    Tin Plating

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    Cadmium Plating

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    Nickel Plating

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    Nickel-Chrome Plating

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    Aluminite

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.

    N.D.

    N.D.

    N.A.




     




    Note:

     

    N.D. &ndash; Not Detectable

    Detection Limit of Weight Change: <0.1mg/dm2  day

     

     

    N.A. &ndash; Not Apparent

    Detection Limit of Cl Ion: <0.1ppm

    Detection Method: Visual




     




    STABILITY




    Stability of AK-225AES is similar to CFC-113AES. Followings are the results of accelerated oxidation




    testing. The test method is as follows*




     




    Test Method: Solvents were refluxed for 48hrs under tungsten lamp irradiation with moisture saturated oxygen bubbled through continuously. Test coupons made of carbon steel were located in both the vapor and liquid phases.




     




    Test Results after 48hrs




     




    Solvent

    Acidity as HCl (ppm)

    Corrosion

    AK-225AES

    Not Detectable

    None Apparent

    CFC-113AES

    Not Detectable

    None Apparent




    Detection Limit of Acidity: <0.2ppm




     




    CONTAMINATION LEVEL CONTROL




     




    To maintain effective cleaning in a vapor degreaser, it is important to keep contamination levels in the boil sump below, for example, 20% by weight. The level depends on the required cleanliness.  Contamination is monitored by measuring the specific gravity and boiling point of the solvent. Figures 1 and 2 offer




    typical specific gravity and boiling point curves which are used to determine when the boil sump should be recharged. When first utilizing AK-225AES it is recommended that the boil sump be monitored weekly to insure that it is operating within the recommended guidelines. However, workloads vary from user to user and the frequency of monitoring can be shortened or extended based upon individual needs.




     




    As with any solvent contamination such as flux will accumulate and it is important to maintain the pH of the solvent in the water separator above 5.




     




    Minimize introduction of water into equipment containing AK-225AES. Alcohol and the stabilizer in AK-225 will be extracted by large amount of water.

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